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spike bullet November, 1996 - Management vs. Leadership

  • Managers and Leaders - Comparison of traits
  • Executive Sponsorship - Tips for Successful IT Projects
  • Management Styles - personality affects management/leadership styles (w/cartoon graphics)
  • Resources on the Internet
  • spike bullet Management vs. Leadership

    The differences between Managers and Leaders are often subtle. The "best" learn to use management skills when appropriate and leadership skills when appropriate. Management skills are not limited to people with job title of "managers" nor are leadership skills limited to people with job title of "leaders." And, some portion of people who do carry those titles, do not have the skills implied by the title. Readers of the Dilbert comic series are very familiar with his poking fun at managers and corporate culture.

    Many people in everyday circumstances use management skills, leadership skills or a combination of both. Learning the differences and how to use the skills appropriately is an art, as noted by Craig Hickman in his book Mind of a Manager, Soul of a Leader.

    spike bullet Managers and Leaders - Comparison of Traits

    spike bulletDefinition:

    Managers . . .

    Leaders . . .

    are analytical, structured, controlled, deliberate and orderly are experimental, visionary, flexible, unfettered and creative

    spike bulletPrimary Problem-Solving Method:

    Managers . . .

    Leaders . . .

    use the power of the logical mind use the power of intuition
    spike bullet Competitive Strategy/Advantage Focus:

    Managers . . .

    Leaders . . .

    Concentrate on Strategy Nurture Culture
    Consider Dangers Sense Opportunity
    Follow Versions Pursue Visions
    Isolate Correlate
    Determine Scope of Problems Search for Alternative Solutions
    Seek Markets Serve People
    Think Rivals / Competition Think Partners / Cooperation
    Design Incremental Strategies Lay Out Sweeping Strategies
    Correct Strategic Weaknesses Build on Strategic Strengths
    spike bulletOrganizational Culture/Capability:

    Managers . . .

    Leaders . . .

    Wield Authority Apply Influence
    Seek Uniformity Pursue Unity
    Administer Programs Develop People
    Formulate Policy Set Examples
    Instruct Inspire
    Manage by Goals / Objectives Manage by Interaction
    Control Empower
    Easily Release Employees Would Rather Enhance Employees
    Employ Consistency Elicit Creativity
    spike bulletExternal/Internal Change:

    Managers . . .

    Leaders . . .

    Yearn for Stability Thrive on Crisis
    Duplicate Originate
    Fasten Things Down Unfasten Them
    Drive Toward Compromise Work to Polarize
    See Complexity See Simplicity
    React Proactive
    Plan Experiment
    Reorganize Redevelop
    Refine Revolutionize
    spike bulletIndividual Effectiveness Style:

    Managers . . .

    Leaders . . .

    Ask How (Seek Methods) Wonder Why (Seek Motives)
    Think Logically Think Laterally
    Perpetuate Hierarchies Strive for Equality
    Are Skeptical Are Optimistic
    Plan Around Confront
    Take Charge Encourage Delegation
    Like Formality Prefer Informality
    Venerate Science Revere Art
    Perform Duties Pursue Dreams
    spike bullet Bottom-Line Performance/Results:

    Managers . . .

    Leaders . . .

    Scrutinize Performance Search for Potential
    Are Dependent Are Independent
    Compensate People Satisfy Them
    Conserve Assets Risk Them
    Pursue the Tangible Seek the Intangible
    Inhabit the Present Reside in the Future
    Concentrate on Short-term Results Seek Long-term Results
    Want Good Demand Better
    spike bulletExamples:  

    Managers . . .

    Leaders . . .

    Henry Ford, Ford Motor Company Ray Kroc, McDonald's
    Harold Geneen, ITT Walt Disney, Disney Studios
    John Akers, IBM Ross Perot, EDS and Perot Systems
    Tom Landry, Dallas Cowboys Ted Turner, Turner Broadcasting
    Charles Knight, Emerson Electric Steven Jobs, Apple Computer
    George Bush, President of the U.S. Bill Clinton, President of the U.S.

    [ adapted from Mind of a Manager, Soul of a Leader by Craig Hickman, John Wiley & Sons ]

    spike bullet Executive Sponsorship and Business Process Re-engineering

    Business Process Re-engineering is a hot topic in large companies today. Every list of "keys for success" advises "have an executive sponsor." What is often missing are instructions to the executive who find themselves in that role. Many project sponsors are unprepared it assume the role of Executive Sponsorship of a critical project. And, since they are "expected" to know what to do, they rarely ask for clarification.

    As the Information Technology industry tries to keep up with Business Re-Engineering and the extremely high pace of technology integration into the fabric of our society, the pressure grows to bring in projects on-time and within budget - an almost impossible expectation, given the track record of most IT projects.

    This article provides some tips for those IT folks to use as starting point in discussion with potential executive sponsors.

    [Following is an excerpt from an article to be published in 1997 in Methods & Tools (the global newsletter for information systems development professionals), published by Martinig & Associates, Switzerland.]

    How to Sponsor a Successful Project

    1. Understand what makes projects succeed or fail (see Project Success Factors)
    2. Know the danger signs of troubled projects
    3. Appoint experienced project managers and team members, and keep them motivated
    4. Use outside consultants to supplement internal staff
    5. Enforce the ground rules of good project management
    6. Provide leadership, guidance and support to the team
    7. Help the team manage expectations
    8. Conduct regular, productive committee meetings
    9. Hold people responsible and accountable
    10. Don't micro-manage the project
    11. Stay out of the way most of the time
    12. Know when to step in
    13. Know when to ask for help
    14. Don't accept guesses — make sure the facts support all project adjustments
    15. Identify and solve small problems as they surface
    16. Understand the dynamics of your organization's culture
    17. Use your political clout, if necessary
    18. Be the project's champion
    19. Reward success
    20. Set a good example

    on target Project Success Factors:

    There is massive research on what makes projects succeed and fail. Why then do projects continue to fail at alarming rates? Only 16 % of IS projects were completed on time and within budget, according to a 1995 Computerworld report. Obviously, there are a few folks who are not reading the research or have missed a few tips along the way.

    Some projects start out doing all the right things, then get in trouble. Others simply meander along without any clear direction - "guided" by people hoping that things will somehow fix themselves. Leading projects run like a well-oiled machine - arriving on target, within budget and meeting user expectations.

    What makes one project succeed ahead of schedule where another fails miserably?

    Known success factors:

    1. A project manager with comparable experience in large-scale endeavors
    2. An experienced core team supplemented by outside experts
    3. A well-defined project plan
    4. A rigorous quality assurance process
    5. Open, honest communications
    6. A process for keeping the team energized and motivated
    7. A committed executive sponsor with the time and energy to be the project champion.

    Red Flags:

    A key responsibility of the executive sponsor is to provide high-level guidance to the implementation team and to be the project's champion within the organization. The sponsor must be constantly encouraging the team, yet watching for potential bumps in the road that might de-rail a project.

    Factors that lead to project failure:

    1. Incomplete requirements
    2. Lack of user involvement
    3. Lack of resources
    4. Unrealistic expectations
    5. Lack of executive support
    6. Changing requirements and specifications
    7. Lack of planning.

    Indicators of a high-risk project:

    1. The project is the largest ever taken by an organization
    2. The project is highly integrated (that is, interlocking systems depend on each other in order to function)
    3. The software is new (or relatively new) and has not yet been proven in the market
    4. The software needs additional modification to meet your organization's needs
    5. The project uses leading edge technology (affectionately known as bleeding edge)
    6. The project is out-sourced to consultants who are inexperienced with a project of comparable size and/or unfamiliar with your industry
    7. Internal technical staff, key users and/or project manager have not successfully implemented a project of comparable size or complexity.

    If any of the high-risk factors exist, the project starts with a considerable handicap. Obviously, projects with multiple high-risk factors have a higher handicap. The executive sponsor may have to supplement the project team (both technical staff and users) with experienced people - whether outside consultants or others in the organization - who have been through a major project similar in scope to the new project.

    A key red flag: individual egos getting in the way of good teamwork. If this happens, the project may have to be stopped until either changes are made or sufficient training is done to insure that people can work together as a team. The most elegant hardware and sophisticated system cannot overcome people's resistance to accept the finished product.

    spike bulletRelationship of personality to management style

    There are definite relationships between a person's basic personality and management style.

    People­oriented people tend to have more team-oriented management styles. 
    Things-oriented people tend to have more process-oriented management styles.
    Idea-oriented people tend to have more innovation-oriented management styles.

    In a healthy company, it is important to have a mixture of people with different talents and skills. The challenge is finding ways for different people to work together while understanding and appreciating the uniqueness each person brings. Accountants may not understand marketing people, but without marketing there would be no need for accountants, so they must find ways to work together. Corporate training in 'team-building' exercises provides the ability for people to learn about themselves, and about others who have different personality or working styles.

    The collective fabric of personality and management styles envelopes the corporate culture, interweaving with values, beliefs and ethics. (for more detail on this topic, see the June 1998 newsletter topic).

    spike bullet Understanding through archetypes and humor

    Another fun way to characterize management/personality style:

    Attenuator:  

    Man under a rain cloudWoman in the rain Overview: Someone who does not like conflict or trouble; indecisive and rarely takes risks.

    Psychological needs: Need for Safety or Security. 

    Motivation: Fear of loss, minimize risk.

    Participator:

    Coffee break Overview Someone who needs people; joiners, team players, dependent, followers, compromisers and must satisfy the people around them.

    Psychological needs: Need for social contact; need to belong. 

    Motivation: Desire for immediate material benefits, recognition and acceptance.

    Director:  

    Overview: Aggressive, must win, generally intolerant, strong ego; usually a leader; insensitive and does not like to share credit.

    Psychological needs: Need for high self-esteem or ego. 

    Motivation: Desire for challenge, change and the opportunity to prove oneself.

    Attainer:    

    Overview: Confident; short range, goal-oriented; independent, task-oriented, analytical, likes data.

    Psychological needs:  Need to be correct. 

    Motivation: Challenge and contribution to the team.

    Adapter:   

    Overview: Strategist; opportunistic, persuasive, likes to influence people; oriented toward long range goals; sees the big picture; impatient with details; perceptive and reads other people well.

    Psychological needs: Need for self-actualization

    Motivation: Personal satisfaction, contribution to society, maximum opportunity.

    Source: System of personality/management styles developed by Dr. Michael Anthony

    World Wide Web graphic Internet Resources

    Related newsletter articles - October 1996 - Management Styles

    Updated Management / Leadership Styles - March 2003 article

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    Page updated: June 06, 2009      Institute for Management Excellence, Copyright © 2001 All rights reserved

    The 10th Need: Mischief    :)

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